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SECURITY

Programming Hashing Algorithms (part 2) - Instantiating the Algorithm

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2. Instantiating the Algorithm

The first step toward creating a hash code is to create an instance of an implementation class for the algorithm that you want to use. The simplest way of doing this is to use the name of the class directly:

# C#

SHA1Managed x_hash_alg = new SHA1Managed( );

# Visual Basic .NET

Dim x_hash_alg As SHA1Managed = New SHA1Managed( )

This statement creates an instance of the managed-code implementation of the SHA-1 algorithm. This is the clearest and most direct approach to instantiating hashing algorithms. Another approach is to use the static HashAlgorithm.Create method to instantiate the class indirectly:

# C#

HashAlgorithm x_hash_alg = HashAlgorithm.Create("SHA1");

# Visual Basic .NET

Dim x_hash_alg As HashAlgorithm = HashAlgorithm.Create("SHA1")

The Create method instantiates an algorithm based on the value of the string argument. Table 2 lists the mapping between string values and implementation classes.

Table 2. Mapping string values to algorithm classes
String value Algorithm-implementation class
MD5 MD5CryptoServiceProvider
System.Security.Cryptography.MD5 MD5CryptoServiceProvider
SHA SHA1CryptoServiceProvider
SHA1 SHA1CryptoServiceProvider
System.Security.Cryptography.SHA1 SHA1CryptoServiceProvider
SHA256 SHA256Managed
SHA-256 SHA256Managed
System.Security.Cryptography.SHA256 SHA256Managed
SHA384 SHA384Managed
SHA-384 SHA384Managed
System.Security.Cryptography.SHA384 SHA384Managed
SHA512 SHA512Managed
SHA-512 SHA512Managed
System.Security.Cryptography.SHA512 SHA512Managed

If you do not supply a string as an argument to the Create method or the string is not one of the values listed in Table 13-3, then the System.Security.Cryptography.SHA1CryptoServiceProvider algorithm will be used as a default.


This approach is less direct but does have a number of benefits. First, we only have to change the value of the string to change the algorithm that is used. Second, the systems administrator can alter the mappings listed in Table 2 by editing the .NET configuration files, potentially allowing a customer to use a different algorithm for specific tasks. For example, a customer may want to use specialized hardware to generate hash codes rather than relying on the default software implementations. We recommend that you use the HashAlgorithm.Create method for the flexibility that it offers.

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